Language English

Launched 1992

Developer Barrie, Fred and Steven Foster

Country of Origin US America


Topic Universal

Region No Limitation

Technical functionalities
Gopher search tool

Used SeEn

Older Version Internet Archive / WebCite

Sonnenreich, Wes (1997): »While Archie indexed computer files, "Gopher" indexed plain text documents. Gopher was created in 1991 by Mark McCahill at the University of Minnesota. (The program was named after the school's mascot). Because these were text files, most of the Gopher sites became Web sites after the creation of the World Wide Web. Two other programs, "Veronica" and "Jughead," searched the files stored in Gopher index systems. Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives) provided a keyword search of most Gopher menu titles in the entire Gopher listings. Jughead (Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display) was a tool for obtaining menu information from various Gopher servers.« Source

Salient Marketing (2006): »FTP enabled Internet users to locate and access files or more correctly, folders of information located on FTP servers. Another protocol called Gopher existed to handle plain-text documents and these were stored on so-called Gopher servers. Gopher was created in 1991 by Mark McCahill and his team at the University of Minnesota and was named after the university mascot, the Golden Gopher. The popularity of Emtage’s Archie had grown considerably by 1993, prompting Fred Barrie and Steven Foster at the University of Nevada System Computing Services Group to develop Veronica to search for Gopher files. The group dubbed Veronica - Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives – as “the grandmother of all search engines.” At its peak usage, Veronica searched through a database of over 5,500 Gopher servers and over 10 million Gopher “items” or documents whose titles contain your keyword. Veronica would then set up a temporary Gopher server containing the matches which you could browse. Veronica was much overloaded, often gave error messages for a keyword search then provided results for the same keyword search on a second or third try.« »« Source


Critical points

Features & Functionality

»Veronica accepts simple keyword searches, or combinations of keywords --- Veronica may return pointers to individual files held in gopherspace, or menu items.« Source


References & further Publications

Wikipedia (EN):
Wikipedia (Others):

Other Sources

Salient Marketing (2006): Veronica, the grandmother of search engines - 1993 URL:
Sonnenreich, Wes (1997): A History of Search Engines URL:

Created: 2016-03-02