Google Scholar

Stand on the shoulders of giants

Google Scholar was launched in 2004 and is a Google product based on the same search technology. This means that even in Scholar, content is automatically captured and indexed using crawling. Google also has licenses for a wide range of publishing services, which are also crawled by Google Scholar and integrated into the index. In addition, it developed its own autonomous citation index, which also flows into the ranking and thus optimises the relevance of the results. Anurag Acharya, whose original idea was to improve the ranking of scientific documents within the Google search engine, is regarded as the initiator and main developer of Google Scholar. From user queries, Google knew that scientific queries also came from users.

In contrast to specialized databases, which have sorted their content primarily by publication date (newest first), Google Scholar offers a relevance ranking, which is based on a full text analysis and the inclusion of the special features of scientific documents (citations). Within the first five years, the search engine was offered as a so-called beta version. Google Scholar is freely available and is offered in numerous languages. In addition to articles, books and other sources are also included. Scholar's high update rate enables the search engine to quickly record new publications (mostly as preprints). Since 2011, the authors themselves can create a profile and since 2012, measurements are offered for journal evaluation.

Scholar collects scientific literature from the web and through contracts with scientific publishers, also content that is not freely available on the web. Scholar supports metadata formats such as HighWire Press, EPrints, BE Press or PRISM tags for crawled content on the web. The metadata is integrated into the index using parsers. In addition to publisher content, Scholar integrates Google services such as Google Books or Google Patents, content from thematic and institutional repositories, and bibliographic services. Documents without metadata can also be captured. However, not all content is taken into account, but those that are recognized as scientific literature. According to Google Scholar, the documents must be in PDF format, the single title must be followed by the author's name, and a bibliography and an abstract must be included. Documents that are larger than 5MB, such as books or dissertations, are not included by Scholar, but can be uploaded to Google Books. The requirements defined by Scholar have established themselves with the providers of scientific information and can be seen as "quasi standards" for the integration in scientific search engines.

Language Multilingual

Launched 2004
Closed No

Developer Google Inc.

Country of Origin US America

2004 - [...] Google Inc.

Topic Academic, Scientific or Educational Search engine

Region No Limitation

Technical functionalities
Robot/Crawler based, algorithmic search
Search engine for databases, repositories, portals and other closed (deep web) or open content collections

Used SeEn Google Search Engine

Older Version Internet Archive / WebCite

KISHAN SUTARIYA (2013): »Google Scholar is a web search engine that provides access to educational literature through a variety of sources. It can be accessed at Google’s website describes Google Scholar as follows: Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. From one place, you can search across many disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions, from academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, universities and other web sites. Google Scholar helps you find relevant work across the world of scholarly research. Google Scholar enables you to search all scholarly literature from one location, while retaining the ability to cite the publications, keep up with various developments in a certain industry or area, and link with your library or look up the document on the web. Google Scholar launched its beta version in November 2004 and added features based on demand, including the ability to cite articles in 2006, and digitize and host journal articles in 2007. Google Scholar exists to provide a specialized search engine for scholarly literature, in comparison with the standard Google search which has information from a variety of sources. You should use Google Scholar when looking for publications and scholarly articles on your topic. A good example would be if you were looking for academic articles on “iPhone Success”, Google Scholar would provide a better set of results then the standard search on Google. This is evident below with Google Scholar results coming up in the regular search. However, using Google Scholar may not be the best tool in all cases, which I will discuss later in the chapter.« Source


Critical points

Features & Functionality


Example results page for "sand": Source

References & further Publications

Wikipedia (EN):
Wikipedia (Others):

Other Sources

Inclusion Guidelines for Webmasters URL:
Dirk Lewandowski, (2010) "Google Scholar as a tool for discovering journal articles in library and information science", Online Information Review, Vol. 34 Issue: 2, pp.250-262 URL:
Richard Van Noorden (November 10, 2014): Google Scholar Pioneer Reflects on the Academic Search Engine's Future : As Google Scholar approaches its 10th anniversary, Nature spoke to its co-creator Anurag Acharya URL:
Ortega, J. L. (2014). Academic search engines: a quantitative outlook. Oxford: Chandos Publishing. URL:
Lewandowski, D. (2015). Suchmaschinen verstehen. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. URL: 1007/978-3-662-44014-8
Van Noorden, R. (2014a November). Google Scholar pioneer on search engine’s future. Nature. URL:
Google Scholar Inclusion: Inclusion Guidelines for Webmasters. URL: intl/en/scholar/inclusion.html
Wu, C. H. & Song, Y. (2015 Oktober). Robust and distributed web-scale near-dup document conflation in microsoft academic service. In Proceedings - 2015 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, IEEE Big Data 2015 (S. 2606–2611). IEEE. URL: 2015.7364059
Sinha, A., Shen, Z., Song, Y., Ma, H., Eide, D., Hsu, B.-j. (, & Wang, K. (2015). An Overview of Microsoft Academic Service (MAS) and Applications. In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion (WWW 2015 Companion) (S. 243– 246). URL:

Created: 2013-03-09